## DEGREE SYMBOL IN GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATES

The geographical coordinates is a reference system that allows each location on the Earth is specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are generally chosen so that two of the references represent a horizontal position and a third represents the altitude. The horizontal position coordinates used are latitude and longitude, a spherical or spheroid angular coordinate system whose center is the center of the Earth and is usually expressed in sexagesimal degrees:

The latitude 1 ( abbreviation :. Lat, φ, or phi) of a point on the surface of the Earth is the angle between the equatorial plane and the line passing through this point and the center of the Earth. All points with the same latitude form a plane parallel to the plane of the equator. The equator is parallel 0 ° and divides the globe into northern and southern hemispheres; thus the north pole is 90 ° N and the south pole is 90 ° S.

The longitude 2 (abbreviation: Long., Λ, or lambda) of a point on the Earth’s surface is the angle between the reference meridian and the meridian that passes through this point. The most widely accepted reference meridian is the meridian that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, located southeast of London , England . This prime meridian determines the eastern and western hemispheres.

The lines of longitude form maximum semicircles that pass through the poles and are called meridians. The meridians along with their corresponding antimeridiansthey form circumferences of 40,007,161 km in length. The distance in km to which one degree of longitude equals depends on the latitude.

As the latitude increases, towards North or South, the kilometers per degree decrease. For the parallel of the Equator, knowing that the circumference that corresponds to the Equator measures 40,075,017 km, 1 ° is equivalent to 111,319 km (the result of dividing the perimeter of the equator by 360 ° of longitude). 3

Indication of altitude requires the choice of a spheroid model that represents the Earth, and these models produce different values for altitude. This is solved using a data that represents the altitude in the different models used.

The terrestrial insolation depends on the latitude. Given the distance that separates us from the Sun, the light rays that reach us are practically parallel. The inclination with which these rays strike the Earth’s surface is thus variable according to latitude.

In the intertropical zone, at noon, they fall almost vertically, while they fall even more steeply the further one ascends in latitude, that is, the closer we get to the Poles . This explains the contrast between the polar regions, which are very cold, and the tropical regions, which are very warm. 4
Absolute position: it is determined through the geographical coordinates (latitude and longitude).

Relative position: it allows locating different territorial spaces from taking another territorial space as a reference.

## Geographic coordinates in sexagesimal notation

On this occasion, I am going to comment on a specific case that happened to me this week, in which I had to create a layer with the location of the AEMET weather networks located in Andalusia.

Removing a somewhat strange format, according to the metadata sent the geographic coordinates, the location of each station was offered in a sexagesimal system, so editing work had to be carried out to be able to incorporate them into the Post GIS geographic base of the project.

The coordinates of the 1700-odd stations, as I mentioned, were in sexagesimal notation, or what is the same, represented in degrees, minutes and seconds . Parts of a degree less than a second are expressed as a decimal part of a second. To this system is added the initials N / S for latitude according to the hemisphere in which we are and E / W for longitude according to its location in relation to the Greenwich Meridian.

This representation format is not, however, the most used within GIS . It is more common to work with data in geographic coordinate systems (WGS84, ETRS89 …) but with decimal notation . In this case, latitudes 0 ° and 90 ° would correspond to the Northern Hemisphere and those between 0 ° and -90 ° to the Southern Hemisphere. For Longitude, the values between 0 ° and 180 ° are located to the East of the Greenwich meridian and the degrees between 0 ° and -180 ° are situations to the West of said meridian. Thus, the previous coordinates, in decimal system, would correspond to:

## Working with geographic coordinates GGMMSS with QGIS 3

Having some basic but clear knowledge about Geodesy is one of the keys on which the professional use of Geographic Information Systems is based. They are somewhat complicated topics, especially for those people not related to careers such as geodetic engineering, surveying or geography, but on the other hand fundamental.

In the courses that I have been teaching, I usually add a small annex with simple explanations of concepts such as: ellipsoid, datum, projections, latitude, longitude…. I also recommend this dossier entitled “Concepts of Cartography” edited by the IGN or this one on Geodesy , this time somewhat more advanced.
The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by Muhammad al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154.

## Geographic coordinates in sexagesimal notation

On this occasion, I am going to comment on a specific case that happened to me this week, in which I had to create a layer with the location of the AEMET weather networks located in Andalusia.

Removing a somewhat strange format, according to the metadata sent the geographic coordinates, the location of each station was offered in a sexagesimal system, so editing work had to be carried out to be able to incorporate them into the Post GIS geographic base of the project.

The coordinates of the 1700-odd stations, as I mentioned, were in sexagesimal notation, or what is the same, represented in degrees, minutes and seconds . Parts of a degree less than a second are expressed as a decimal part of a second. To this system is added the initials N / S for latitude according to the hemisphere in which we are and E / W for longitude according to its location in relation to the Greenwich Meridian.

## Degree Symbol in Maths – ° Degree Symbols

This article is about “grade” as it is used in the area of mathematics. For other meanings of this word, see grade .In mathematics there are different meanings of the word degree depending on the mathematical area in question. All definitions result in a natural number that expresses the degree .

## Degree of a Polynomial

In algebra degree of a polynomial is the maximum degree of the exponents of the variables of the monomials that compose it. Each degree has basically the same meaning when it refers to a polynomial or an algebraic equation. Consequently, the first definition that may need to be revised is that of the monomial, considered by elementary algebra as a basic algebraic expression, which is made up of a combination of numbers and letters (raised to positive integer exponents, including zero) between which there are no subtraction, addition or division operations, being then the only ones allowed, the multiplication raised between the numeric element (coefficient) and the non-numeric element (literal or variable) as well as the potentiation that occurred between the literal and its exponent.

The degree of a polynomial of a variable is the maximum exponent that the monomial has on the variable; For example, in 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 + x + 7, the term with the highest degree is 2 x 3 ; this term has a power of three on the variable x, and is therefore defined as degree 3 or third degree .

For polynomials of two or more variables, the degree of a term is the sum of the exponents of the variables in the term; the degree of the polynomial will be the monomial of the highest degree. For example, the polynomial x 2 y 2 + 3 x 3 + 4 y has a degree of 4, the same degree as the term x 2 and 2 .

## Degree Of Congruence

Yes {\ displaystyle \ textstyle f (x) = a_ {n} x ^ {n} + a_ {n-1} x ^ {n-1} + \ cdots + a_ {1} x ^ {1} + a_ {0 } x <0}{\ displaystyle \ textstyle f (x) = a_ {n} x ^ {n} + a_ {n-1} x ^ {n-1} + \ cdots + a_ {1} x ^ {1} + a_ {0 } x <0} is a polynomial with integer coefficients, the degree of congruence of {\ displaystyle \ textstyle f (x) \ equiv 0 {\ pmod {m}}}{\ displaystyle \ textstyle f (x) \ equiv 0 {\ pmod {m}}}is the largest positive integer j such that a j is not congruent with zero with respect to modulus m .

## Equation Theory

In algebraic equation theory , the degree of an equation corresponds to the maximum power to which the algebraic unknown in the equation is raised. For example:{\ displaystyle x ^ {3} y + 4x-y = 2xy \, \!}{\ displaystyle x ^ {3} y + 4x-y = 2xy \, \!}the equation is of the third degree in x , being of the first degree in the unknown y . See: Equation of second degree , Equation of third degree , Equation of fourth degree , Equation of fifth degree , etc.

## Degree of an extension

In algebra it has the extension body and the degree therein is defined as any vector space with basis you can calculate the dimension of{\ displaystyle L}L as vector space over {\ displaystyle K}K, denoted by {\ displaystyle \ dim _ {K} (L)}{\ displaystyle \ dim _ {K} (L)}. {\ displaystyle L: K}{\ displaystyle L: K} to the dimension of {\ displaystyle L}L What {\ displaystyle K}K-vectorial space: {\ displaystyle [L: K] = \ dim _ {K} (L)}{\ displaystyle [L: K] = \ dim _ {K} (L)}.

## Graph theory

In Graph Theory , the degree or valence of a vertex is the number of edges incident to the vertex. The degree of a vertex x is denoted by degree (x) , g (x) or gr (x) (although δ (x) is also used , and from English d (x) and deg (x) ). The maximum degree of a graph G is denoted by Δ (G) and the minimum degree of a graph G is denoted by δ (G) .

## Degree of freedom (statistics)

In statistics , degrees of freedom , an expression introduced by Ronald Fisher , says that, from a set of observations, the degrees of freedom are given by the number of values that can be arbitrarily assigned, before the rest of the variables take a value automatically, the product of establishing those that are free; this, in order to compensate and equalize a result which has been previously known. They are found by the formula{\ displaystyle nr}{\ displaystyle nr}, where n is the number of subjects in the sample that can take a value and r is the number of subjects whose value will depend on the number taken by the members of the sample who are free. They can also be represented by{\ displaystyle kr}{\ displaystyle kr}, where {\ displaystyle k}k= number of groups; this, when operations are carried out with groups and not with individual subjects.

When it comes to eliminating statistics with a set of data, the residuals – expressed in vector form – are found, usually in a space of less dimension than that in which the original data were found. The degrees of freedom of the error are determined precisely by the value of this smallest dimension.

This also means that the residuals are restricted to being in a space of dimension {\ displaystyle n-1}n-1 (in this example, in the general case a {\ displaystyle nr}{\ displaystyle nr}) since, if the value of {\ displaystyle n-1}n-1of these residues, the determination of the value of the remaining residue is immediate. Thus, it is said that «the error has{\ displaystyle n-1}n-1 degrees of freedom »(the error has {\ displaystyle nr}{\ displaystyle nr} general degrees of freedom).

## ° Degree Symbol Alt Code

Windows ALT Code List (ASCII Symbols) – The ALT codes also known as symbols keyboard , symbols ALT or correctly symbols ASCII (For its acronym in English: American Standard Code for Information Interchange ) is a coding pattern that is used in computing.

Taking as an example the common characters that are the letter eñe lowercase ñ or uppercase Ñ or vowels with accent, for example lowercase a with accent á, lowercase e with accent é, etc.
To type any of these with the keyboard in Windows we must perform the following steps:

Press the “ALT” [keybt] ALT [/ keybt] key on the keyboard without releasing.

Holding down the previous one we must write with the numeric keyboard the code corresponding to the ALT symbol to write for example: “165” [keybt] 1 [/ keybt] + [keybt] 6 [/ keybt] + [keybt] 5 [/ keybt] which is the code or number corresponding to the letter or symbol “Ñ” capital letter.
Release the “ALT” key [keybt] ALT [/ keybt] and the character should appear or be displayed.
Summary steps for typing an ALT symbol

Hold down the “ALT” key

Without releasing the previous one write the code; “ALT” + Codes.

Release “ALT” key

## What is the ASCII code for the degree sign symbol?

The degree sign extended ASCII code displayed with the “°” symbol is 248.
For the representation of the degree sign in any computer text, it must be taken into account that it must use ASCII code or an extension that is compatible. If this is compatible, in any text editor, applying the keyboard combination ALT + 248 will return the “°” symbol.

Nowadays almost all computer systems (computers, mobile phones, tablets …) usually accept this code without problem and represent the symbols without problem, however, some may not interpret them making that when indicating the ASCII code 248 (American Standard Code for Information Exchange) an error symbol is displayed instead of the “°” symbol.
It should be remembered that many text editors allow searching in the different symbols in their options panel to facilitate the writing of the symbol «°» without having to know the extended ASCII code that corresponds to it, in this case by combining ALT + 248 .

## How To Make Faces And Symbols Using ASCII Code

It hasn’t happened to you that you need to write a special character like ñ or @ and you don’t know how to write it or where to find it. This may be due to a bad configuration of the keyboard language in your operating system. Surfing the internet I found a solution, which is the one that I am going to show you next, we are going to see a little theory. It is about using the famous ASCII code to be able to obtain any symbol regardless of the language of the keyboard of the operating system in which we are working.

## What Is ASCII Code ?

ASCII is the acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange in Spanish stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange generally pronounced Aski . It is based on the Latin alphabet, as used in modern English. It was created in 1963 by the American Standards Committee (ASA),

## How To Use?

To create these characters, hold down the “alt” key on your keyboard and type the numbers on the right side of the keyboard (numeric keypad) and then release the buttons and the symbol will appear. This is a great way to experiment with new symbols, signs, and characters. It’s also good if a button or letter on the keyboard stops working, because you can still type with the number pad. Just look down the list to find the one you need.

## How to type the ° (degrees) symbol in Word 2016 and Word 2019

Perhaps the most utilized applications today for report the board in Microsoft Word  Thanks to this program, we have the possibility of creating text files with different options such as graphs or tables. In addition, sharing a Word document is something quite simple, since we can do it through the mail for example, being a compatible format on both Windows and Mac.

In spite of the fact that Word offers us many alternatives to deal with the data in the most ideal manner, in some cases we wind up confronted with the need to enter certain unique characters and we do not know how to do them or we must resort to the ASCII table to know which combination of keys we can use to get that symbol or character.

That is why today Solvetic will analyze the different practical ways of entering said text in our Word 2016 and Word 2019 documents.

If we are on computers with Windows operating systems we will press the Alt key and the numbers 0176 or 248, then we release the Alt key and the degree symbol will appear automatically.
Alt+ 0176 / 248

If we are on computers with macOS operating systems, it will be necessary to use the key combination Option + Shift + 8 to add this symbol.

## Degrees Celsius to Fahrenheit – Metric Conversion ºC to ºF

The degree Celsius (symbol: ° C) designates the temperature unit, named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who was the first to propose it in 1742. The Celsius temperature scale was designed that the freezing point (freezing) of the water corresponds to zero, and the evaporation point corresponds to the value 100, observed at a standard atmospheric pressure.

As there are 100 graduations between these two reference points, the original term for this system was either centigrade (100 parts) or hundredths. In 1948, the name of the system was officially changed to Celsius during the 9th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CR 64), both in recognition of Celsius and to eliminate the confusion caused by the conflict in the use of the SI centi prefixes. Therefore, it is not convenient to say “degree centigrade”, but rather, “degree Celsius”.

While the water freeze and evaporation values ​​are approximately correct, the original definition is not appropriate as a formal standard: it depends on the definition of standard atmospheric pressure, which in turn depends on the temperature definition itself. The current official definition of degree Celsius defines 0.01 ° C as the triple point of water, and 1 degree Celsius as being 1 / 273.16 of the temperature difference between the triple point of water and absolute zero. This definition guarantees that 1 degree Celsius has the same temperature variation as 1 kelvin.

Digital thermo hygrometer with a thermocouple inside Anders Celsius initially proposed that the freezing point be 100 degrees Celsius, and the evaporation point 0 degrees Celsius. This was reversed in 1747, at the instigation of Linnaeus, or perhaps Daniel Ekström, the builder of most of the thermometers used by Celsius.

# The Fahrenheit scale

Due to the low temperatures in northern European countries, Gabriel Fahrenheit had developed a previous scale to be able to measure the extremely low temperatures in these regions.

## Conversion

The conversion method for Fahrenheit consists of multiplying the value in Celsius by 1.8 and adding 32 to the result.

Similarly, to convert degree Fahrenheit to degree Celsius, subtract 32 and divide the result by 1.8.

## Present

The Celsius scale is used almost all over the world on a daily basis, although it was called centigrade until the late 1980s and early 1990s, mainly in weather forecasts on European radio and television networks such as the BBC, ITV, and RTÉ .

In the USA, Fahrenheit is the preferred scale for daily temperature measurements. It should be noted, however, that even these countries use Celsius or Kelvin in scientific applications.

Street thermometer. In newscasts and thermometers on major avenues in Brazil, they always refer to temperature on the Celsius scale, expressing it only with the degree symbol (°). Such a notation causes some confusion for North American visitors and is considered wrong by the SI (International System of Units), since the degree symbol after the numerical quantity without the letter C represents the angle symbol.

Scientific thermometers have mercury inside, and homemade ones usually contain alcohol (blue in color). The most modern and also precise are made by the union of two different metals, creating a thermocouple. Most modern thermometers and thermostats use a thermocouple.

# Representation of the unit “degree Celsius”

Resolution Conmetro nº 12, of 10/12/1988, adopts the General Framework of Measurement Units and instructs INMETRO to propose the modifications that become necessary to this Framework, in order to resolve omitted cases, keep it updated and resolve doubts that may arise in the interpretation and application of legal units.

– Sub-item 3.5 of Annex A of this Resolution Conmetro deals with the spacing between number and symbol, and establishes that the spacing between number and symbol of the corresponding unit must meet the convenience of each case, for example:

a) In sentences of current texts, the space corresponding to one or half letter is normally given, but spacing should not be given when there is a possibility of fraud;

b) In table columns, it is possible to use different spacing between numbers and the symbols of the corresponding units.

– Conmetro Resolution 12/1988 is based on the parameters recommended by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), which regularly publishes a publication on the units of the International System of Units – SI.

– Subitem 5.3.3 of the 8th edition (2006) of the BIPM publication establishes conditions for writing the value of a quantity in the following terms:

a) The unit symbol must always be placed after the numerical value of the expression for a quantity, leaving a space between the numeric value and the unit symbol.

b) The only exceptions to the rule are the unit symbols for the degree, minute and second of the plane angle, °; ´; and ”, respectively, for which there is no space between the numeric value and the unit symbol.

c) It should be noted that, according to this rule, the symbol “° C” for the degree Celsius must be preceded by a space when expressing a temperature on the Celsius scale, as shown below:

# Representation of the “Celsius grade” unit on computers

In Unicode, the degree symbol is U + 00B0 (°), while the respective HTML code is `°`and the Alt + code is Alt + 0167.

Due to the similar appearance of this symbol with other symbols on the computer screen or in certain prints, such as the male ordinal indicator (º), there may be problems when searching for texts with these symbols. Therefore, for keyboards that do not differ between the degree and ordinal symbols, use:

degree Celsius: ALT + 0167 followed by the letter C.
male ordinal indicator: ALT + 167.

# Temperature conversion table in degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit

Conversion Factors

Celsius into / for Fahrenheit: ( the C x 9) / 5) + 32

Fahrenheit into / for Celsius: ( the F – 32) x 5) / 9

c ºF
1 33.8
2 35.6
3 37.4
4 39.2
5 41.0
6 42.8
7 44.6
8 46.4
9 48.2
10 50.0
11 51.8
12 53.6
13 55.4
14 57.2
15 59.0
16 60.8
17 62.6
18 64.4
19 66.2
20 68.0
21 69.8
22 71.6
23 73.4
24 75.2
25 77.0
26 78.8
27 80.6
28 82.4
29 84.2
30 86.0
31 87.8
32 89.6
33 91.4
34 93.2
35 95.0
36 96.8
37 98.6
38 100.4
39 102.2
40 104.0
41 105.8
42 107.6
43 119.4
44 111.2
45 113.0
46 114.8
47 116.6
48 118.4
49 120.2
50 122.0
51 123.8
52 125.6
53 127.4
54 129.2
55 131.0
56 132.8
57 134.6
58 136.4
59 138.2
60 140.0
61 141.8
62 143.6
63 145.4
64 147.2
65 149.0
66 150.8
67 152.6
68 154.4
69 156.2
70 158.0
71 159.8
72 161.6
73 163.4
74 165.2
75 167.0
76 168.8
77 170.6
78 172.4
79 174.2
80 176.0
81 177.8
82 179.6
83 181.4
84 183.2
85 185.0
86 186.8
87 188.6
88 190.4
89 192.2
90 194.0
91 195.8
92 197.6
93 199.4
94 201.2
95 203.0
96 204.8
97 206.6
98 208.4
99 210.2
100 212.0