## Degrees Celsius to Fahrenheit – Metric Conversion ºC to ºF

The degree Celsius (symbol: ° C) designates the temperature unit, named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who was the first to propose it in 1742. The Celsius temperature scale was designed that the freezing point (freezing) of the water corresponds to zero, and the evaporation point corresponds to the value 100, observed at a standard atmospheric pressure.

As there are 100 graduations between these two reference points, the original term for this system was either centigrade (100 parts) or hundredths. In 1948, the name of the system was officially changed to Celsius during the 9th General Conference on Weights and Measures (CR 64), both in recognition of Celsius and to eliminate the confusion caused by the conflict in the use of the SI centi prefixes. Therefore, it is not convenient to say “degree centigrade”, but rather, “degree Celsius”.

While the water freeze and evaporation values ​​are approximately correct, the original definition is not appropriate as a formal standard: it depends on the definition of standard atmospheric pressure, which in turn depends on the temperature definition itself. The current official definition of degree Celsius defines 0.01 ° C as the triple point of water, and 1 degree Celsius as being 1 / 273.16 of the temperature difference between the triple point of water and absolute zero. This definition guarantees that 1 degree Celsius has the same temperature variation as 1 kelvin.

Digital thermo hygrometer with a thermocouple inside Anders Celsius initially proposed that the freezing point be 100 degrees Celsius, and the evaporation point 0 degrees Celsius. This was reversed in 1747, at the instigation of Linnaeus, or perhaps Daniel Ekström, the builder of most of the thermometers used by Celsius.

# The Fahrenheit scale

Due to the low temperatures in northern European countries, Gabriel Fahrenheit had developed a previous scale to be able to measure the extremely low temperatures in these regions.

## Conversion

The conversion method for Fahrenheit consists of multiplying the value in Celsius by 1.8 and adding 32 to the result.

Similarly, to convert degree Fahrenheit to degree Celsius, subtract 32 and divide the result by 1.8.

## Present

The Celsius scale is used almost all over the world on a daily basis, although it was called centigrade until the late 1980s and early 1990s, mainly in weather forecasts on European radio and television networks such as the BBC, ITV, and RTÉ .

In the USA, Fahrenheit is the preferred scale for daily temperature measurements. It should be noted, however, that even these countries use Celsius or Kelvin in scientific applications.

Street thermometer. In newscasts and thermometers on major avenues in Brazil, they always refer to temperature on the Celsius scale, expressing it only with the degree symbol (°). Such a notation causes some confusion for North American visitors and is considered wrong by the SI (International System of Units), since the degree symbol after the numerical quantity without the letter C represents the angle symbol.

Scientific thermometers have mercury inside, and homemade ones usually contain alcohol (blue in color). The most modern and also precise are made by the union of two different metals, creating a thermocouple. Most modern thermometers and thermostats use a thermocouple.

# Representation of the unit “degree Celsius”

Resolution Conmetro nº 12, of 10/12/1988, adopts the General Framework of Measurement Units and instructs INMETRO to propose the modifications that become necessary to this Framework, in order to resolve omitted cases, keep it updated and resolve doubts that may arise in the interpretation and application of legal units.

– Sub-item 3.5 of Annex A of this Resolution Conmetro deals with the spacing between number and symbol, and establishes that the spacing between number and symbol of the corresponding unit must meet the convenience of each case, for example:

a) In sentences of current texts, the space corresponding to one or half letter is normally given, but spacing should not be given when there is a possibility of fraud;

b) In table columns, it is possible to use different spacing between numbers and the symbols of the corresponding units.

– Conmetro Resolution 12/1988 is based on the parameters recommended by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), which regularly publishes a publication on the units of the International System of Units – SI.

– Subitem 5.3.3 of the 8th edition (2006) of the BIPM publication establishes conditions for writing the value of a quantity in the following terms:

a) The unit symbol must always be placed after the numerical value of the expression for a quantity, leaving a space between the numeric value and the unit symbol.

b) The only exceptions to the rule are the unit symbols for the degree, minute and second of the plane angle, °; ´; and ”, respectively, for which there is no space between the numeric value and the unit symbol.

c) It should be noted that, according to this rule, the symbol “° C” for the degree Celsius must be preceded by a space when expressing a temperature on the Celsius scale, as shown below:

# Representation of the “Celsius grade” unit on computers

In Unicode, the degree symbol is U + 00B0 (°), while the respective HTML code is `°`and the Alt + code is Alt + 0167.

Due to the similar appearance of this symbol with other symbols on the computer screen or in certain prints, such as the male ordinal indicator (º), there may be problems when searching for texts with these symbols. Therefore, for keyboards that do not differ between the degree and ordinal symbols, use:

degree Celsius: ALT + 0167 followed by the letter C.
male ordinal indicator: ALT + 167.

# Temperature conversion table in degrees Celsius and Fahrenheit

Conversion Factors

Celsius into / for Fahrenheit: ( the C x 9) / 5) + 32

Fahrenheit into / for Celsius: ( the F – 32) x 5) / 9

c ºF
1 33.8
2 35.6
3 37.4
4 39.2
5 41.0
6 42.8
7 44.6
8 46.4
9 48.2
10 50.0
11 51.8
12 53.6
13 55.4
14 57.2
15 59.0
16 60.8
17 62.6
18 64.4
19 66.2
20 68.0
21 69.8
22 71.6
23 73.4
24 75.2
25 77.0
26 78.8
27 80.6
28 82.4
29 84.2
30 86.0
31 87.8
32 89.6
33 91.4
34 93.2
35 95.0
36 96.8
37 98.6
38 100.4
39 102.2
40 104.0
41 105.8
42 107.6
43 119.4
44 111.2
45 113.0
46 114.8
47 116.6
48 118.4
49 120.2
50 122.0
51 123.8
52 125.6
53 127.4
54 129.2
55 131.0
56 132.8
57 134.6
58 136.4
59 138.2
60 140.0
61 141.8
62 143.6
63 145.4
64 147.2
65 149.0
66 150.8
67 152.6
68 154.4
69 156.2
70 158.0
71 159.8
72 161.6
73 163.4
74 165.2
75 167.0
76 168.8
77 170.6
78 172.4
79 174.2
80 176.0
81 177.8
82 179.6
83 181.4
84 183.2
85 185.0
86 186.8
87 188.6
88 190.4
89 192.2
90 194.0
91 195.8
92 197.6
93 199.4
94 201.2
95 203.0
96 204.8
97 206.6
98 208.4
99 210.2
100 212.0

## What are degrees Celsius Symbol (° C)?

We explain what degrees Celsius are and who was the creator of this unit of measurement. Also, what are Kelvin and Fahrenheit degrees.

unit of measurement for temperature,  wrongly known as degrees Celsius, and represented by the symbol ° C, is called degrees Celsius . This unit pays tribute to its creator, the Swedish physicist and astronomer Anders Celsius, and is equivalent in caloric intensity to the Kelvin degree scale, so it can be defined with the following formula:

Temperature (° C) = Temperature (K) – 273.15

Paradoxically, William Thompson, creator of the Kelvin scale, created it based on the Celsius degree scale, since it is later. However, the latter is the one accepted by the International System, along with that of Celsius as an accessory unit.

For its part, the conversion from degrees Celsius to degrees Fahrenheit is done using the following formula:

Temperature (° F) = 1.8 x Temperature (° C) + 32

The Celsius degree scale places its zero point (0) about 0.01 degrees below the triple point of water: that in which the three states of matter, solid , liquid and gaseous , coexist in equilibrium .

Initially, its creator had based on the freezing and boiling points of water , assigning them 100 and 0 degrees respectively, so that the higher the temperature, the lower the temperature. This logic would be reversed around 1744 when Jean-Pierre Christin and Carlos Linneo proposed to reverse it.

## 2.Anders Celsius

The creator of the Celsius scale was Anders Celsius (1701-1744), a scientist of Swedish origin. Born in the Swedish Empire, he was professor of astronomy at the University of Uppsala , where he supervised the construction of his observatory, in charge of which he has been since 1740.

He was interested in observing the northern lights , in measuring the flattening of the planet at its poles, although his best-known scientific contribution is the creation of the temperature scale that bears his name, which he proposed to the Swedish Academy of Sciences. as a replacement for the Farenheit scale, of German origin.

He died in 1744, a victim of tuberculosis. However, in life he enjoyed numerous recognitions in the scientific area , such as his acceptance in the Royal Society, in the Leopoldina Academy of Natural Sciences or the Prussian Academy of Sciences. Subsequently, one of the craters of the Moon was named in his honor.

## 3.Kelvin degrees

Created by William Thompson Kelvin (called Lord Kelvin) in 1848, it was established using the Celsius scale, but relocating its zero point (0) to make it coincide with the so-called absolute zero (-273.15 ° C, minimum possible temperature) but keeping the same dimensions of the scale. This thermometric unit is represented by the letter K and is considered the “absolute temperature”, which is why it is used in the scientific field, especially in physics and chemistry .

Kelvin degrees are also used to measure color temperature in film , video, and photography . That is, a scale to measure color compared to what a black body heated at a certain temperature in degrees kelvin would emit.

## 4.Farenheit degrees

Represented with the symbol ° F, the degree Farenheit  was proposed by the German physicist and engineer Daniel Gabriel Farenheit in 1724 . According to its scale, the freezing and boiling points of water are 32 ° F and 212 ° F respectively, that is, unlike the Celsius scale, it does not use these points as defining limits.

Instead, Farenheit determined its zero point on the scale through a usual cold mix: ice, water, and ammonium chloride. This is because he wanted to abolish the negative scales of the Rømer scale used until then.