## DEGREE SYMBOL IN GEOGRAPHIC COORDINATES

The geographical coordinates is a reference system that allows each location on the Earth is specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are generally chosen so that two of the references represent a horizontal position and a third represents the altitude. The horizontal position coordinates used are latitude and longitude, a spherical or spheroid angular coordinate system whose center is the center of the Earth and is usually expressed in sexagesimal degrees:

The latitude 1 ( abbreviation :. Lat, φ, or phi) of a point on the surface of the Earth is the angle between the equatorial plane and the line passing through this point and the center of the Earth. All points with the same latitude form a plane parallel to the plane of the equator. The equator is parallel 0 ° and divides the globe into northern and southern hemispheres; thus the north pole is 90 ° N and the south pole is 90 ° S.

The longitude 2 (abbreviation: Long., Λ, or lambda) of a point on the Earth’s surface is the angle between the reference meridian and the meridian that passes through this point. The most widely accepted reference meridian is the meridian that passes through the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, located southeast of London , England . This prime meridian determines the eastern and western hemispheres.

The lines of longitude form maximum semicircles that pass through the poles and are called meridians. The meridians along with their corresponding antimeridiansthey form circumferences of 40,007,161 km in length. The distance in km to which one degree of longitude equals depends on the latitude.

As the latitude increases, towards North or South, the kilometers per degree decrease. For the parallel of the Equator, knowing that the circumference that corresponds to the Equator measures 40,075,017 km, 1 ° is equivalent to 111,319 km (the result of dividing the perimeter of the equator by 360 ° of longitude). 3

Indication of altitude requires the choice of a spheroid model that represents the Earth, and these models produce different values for altitude. This is solved using a data that represents the altitude in the different models used.

The terrestrial insolation depends on the latitude. Given the distance that separates us from the Sun, the light rays that reach us are practically parallel. The inclination with which these rays strike the Earth’s surface is thus variable according to latitude.

In the intertropical zone, at noon, they fall almost vertically, while they fall even more steeply the further one ascends in latitude, that is, the closer we get to the Poles . This explains the contrast between the polar regions, which are very cold, and the tropical regions, which are very warm. 4
Absolute position: it is determined through the geographical coordinates (latitude and longitude).

Relative position: it allows locating different territorial spaces from taking another territorial space as a reference.

## Geographic coordinates in sexagesimal notation

On this occasion, I am going to comment on a specific case that happened to me this week, in which I had to create a layer with the location of the AEMET weather networks located in Andalusia.

Removing a somewhat strange format, according to the metadata sent the geographic coordinates, the location of each station was offered in a sexagesimal system, so editing work had to be carried out to be able to incorporate them into the Post GIS geographic base of the project.

The coordinates of the 1700-odd stations, as I mentioned, were in sexagesimal notation, or what is the same, represented in degrees, minutes and seconds . Parts of a degree less than a second are expressed as a decimal part of a second. To this system is added the initials N / S for latitude according to the hemisphere in which we are and E / W for longitude according to its location in relation to the Greenwich Meridian.

This representation format is not, however, the most used within GIS . It is more common to work with data in geographic coordinate systems (WGS84, ETRS89 …) but with decimal notation . In this case, latitudes 0 ° and 90 ° would correspond to the Northern Hemisphere and those between 0 ° and -90 ° to the Southern Hemisphere. For Longitude, the values between 0 ° and 180 ° are located to the East of the Greenwich meridian and the degrees between 0 ° and -180 ° are situations to the West of said meridian. Thus, the previous coordinates, in decimal system, would correspond to:

## Working with geographic coordinates GGMMSS with QGIS 3

Having some basic but clear knowledge about Geodesy is one of the keys on which the professional use of Geographic Information Systems is based. They are somewhat complicated topics, especially for those people not related to careers such as geodetic engineering, surveying or geography, but on the other hand fundamental.

In the courses that I have been teaching, I usually add a small annex with simple explanations of concepts such as: ellipsoid, datum, projections, latitude, longitude…. I also recommend this dossier entitled “Concepts of Cartography” edited by the IGN or this one on Geodesy , this time somewhat more advanced.
The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by Muhammad al-Idrisi for Roger II of Sicily in 1154.

## Geographic coordinates in sexagesimal notation

On this occasion, I am going to comment on a specific case that happened to me this week, in which I had to create a layer with the location of the AEMET weather networks located in Andalusia.

Removing a somewhat strange format, according to the metadata sent the geographic coordinates, the location of each station was offered in a sexagesimal system, so editing work had to be carried out to be able to incorporate them into the Post GIS geographic base of the project.

The coordinates of the 1700-odd stations, as I mentioned, were in sexagesimal notation, or what is the same, represented in degrees, minutes and seconds . Parts of a degree less than a second are expressed as a decimal part of a second. To this system is added the initials N / S for latitude according to the hemisphere in which we are and E / W for longitude according to its location in relation to the Greenwich Meridian.

## How to add a step symbol to Microsoft Power Point

You will not find ° (degree symbol) on your keyboard. Insert a step symbol into Microsoft PowerPoint in two ways, both of which are detailed below.

## Insert a step symbol using the PowerPoint ribbon

1. Select the text box on the slider where you want to place the step symbol.
2. On the ” Insert ” tab select “Symbol”  In some versions of PowerPoint, this option appears on the right hand side of the menu.
3. In the window that opens, make sure the “Font:” (plain text) menu is selected ,  which in another menu – ” Superscripts and Subscripts” .
4. At the bottom of this window, next to “from” select, ASCII (decimal) .
5. Scroll until you get a step signal.
6. Click on the ” Insert” below.
7. Click ” Close”, close the ” Symbol ” and return to the PowerPoint document.

PowerPoint will probably not prompt you to confirm that you have completed Step 6.. After the ” Insert” if you want to make sure the degree mark has actually been inserted, move the dialog to the side or close it to check.

## Enter a step symbol using a keyboard shortcut

Keyboard shortcuts are more powerful, especially when entering characters like this one, where you would have to scroll through a list of dozens of other characters to find the right one.

In fact, this method does not work no matter where you are, including in email, web browser, etc.

Use your standard keyboard to enter a step symbol

1. Choose exactly where you want the step sign to go.
2. Use the power character hotkey to enter a character: Alt + 0176 .
That is, hold down the Alt key , and then use the keyboard enter 0176  After entering numbers, you can release the Alt key to see the [°] step symbol.
If this step does not work, make sure that the keyboard does not work the keyboard is not locked (i.e enable num locking). If enabled, the keyboard will not accept numeric values. You cannot insert a degree symbol using the top row of numbers.

Each Fn laptop keyboard has a function key It is used to access additional features that are not normally available due to the smaller number of keys on a standard laptop keyboard.

If you do not have a keyboard on your keyboard, but have function keys, try this:

1. Hold the Alt and Fn keys together.
2. Find the keys corresponding to the function keys (same colors as the Fn keys).
3. As above, press the keys showing 0176, then release the Alt and Fn keys to enter the step symbol.

## Import Degree Token on macOS: Why?

Insert Degree Token on macOS: Recently a reader asked about how to use the degree token in macOS (OS X). Writing a degree indicator on your Mac in macOS is as easy as it is on your phone using iOS. It allows you in the right way to show both math and increases unexpected weather conditions.

Again, there are two ways to type digital signal in macOS. They are both system-component functions, as they work seamlessly in any script on your Mac at any time

Note: They work at home with other remnants of secure messaging fields.

But don’t worry, all the applications you need to write a type degree are supported. Including Web browsers, COS Messages, Skype, Mail clients, and even advertising applications like Day One.

### THE MOST IMPORTANT PART IS FROM YOUR MOST IMPORTANT PEOPLE

You can also set the degree mark (among other symbols) by using the Special Character menu. As it has been called the Emoji & Symbols menu in some recent versions of MacOS , including macOS Mojave.

### DEGREE SYMBOL KEYBOARD SHORTCUT

The Special Character menu described above gives you hundreds of useful symbols, colors, and emoji from your choice. Again, if you just want the clear degree signal, it is not your quick choice. Instead, let’s take a shortcut.

While typing, place your hand on the position where you want to place the degree mark. Then use one of the following keyboard shortcuts:

We are not sure if there is any significant difference between large and small digital signals. But if it is used in mathematical and climatic conditions, applying it will likely make your mind over. Again, using the Special Character menu method described in the section above, the larger degree signal is obtained

Here is all about setting the degree indicator on macOS. For more questions and inquiries let us know in the comments section below. Again, drop a sentence if you want to share anything.

# Installing a Degree Symbol on macOS: How?

Installing a Degree Symbol on macOS: A reader was recently asked how to use the graduation symbol in macOS (OS X). Typing a step symbol on your Mac in MacOS is as easy as it is on your phone using iOS. It allows you to properly articulate the mathematics and unpredictable weather.

Also, there are two ways to type a step symbol in macOS. Both are system-level functions, so they will work flawlessly in any application on your Mac at almost any time

Note: Works well with some exceptions for secure text entry fields.

But don’t worry, all the apps in which you want to type a degree symbol are supported. Including Web browsers, macOS Messaging, Skype, Mail clients, and even journalism apps like the popular Day One.

### SYMBOL DEGREE FROM THE MENU SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS

You can enter a degree symbol (among other symbols) by using the Special Characters menu. Now called the emoji & Symbols menu in several recent versions of macOS, including macOS Mojave.

To access it, go to your cursor where you want to insert the step symbol and then go to Edit> Special Characters  (or  Edit> Emoji & Symbols ) in the Menu Bar. Also, you can use the keyboard shortcut Control-Command-Space  on your Mac’s keyboard.

A new window will appear displaying a huge range of special characters ie symbols, and, for Yosemite, Emoji. Instead of manually browsing the available symbols, simply enter “rank” in the search box to display the available rank symbols.

As noted in the picture below you have a choice of three-step symbol options. One each for degrees Fahrenheit and Celsius, also a symbol of ordinary degree. Simply double-click on your symbol to insert it at the current location of your mouse cursor or trackpad. Sometimes used symbols and characters will appear under the search box, saving you a little time in the future.

### DEGREE SYMBOL KEYBOARD SHORTCUT

The Special Characters menu explained above gives you hundreds of useful symbols, characters and emoji to choose from. Also, if you only want a normal rank symbol, that is not your immediate choice. Instead, let’s use a keyboard shortcut.

As you type, move your cursor to where you want to input a degree symbol. Then use one of the following keyboard shortcuts:

Transfer-Option-8:  This key combination inserts the correct step symbol (ie, 72 °)
Option-K: Use this key to insert a small step symbol that looks very similar to the actual step symbol but is less (ie, 72˚)

We are not sure if there is any significant difference between the major and minor degree symbols. But when used in mathematical and meteorological contexts, either of them will probably make your point. Also, by using the Special Characters menu approach explained in the section above, the larger stage symbol is inserted.

## Conclusion:

Here is all the information about the step symbol apply on macOS. For more questions and queries let us know in the comments section below. Also, leave a comment if you want to share anything else.

## Insert a degree symbol

When entering temperature or measurement values ​​in Word, you may need to insert the degree symbol. This can be done using the drop-down menu or the keyboard shortcut ALT + 0176.

• Insert a degree symbol using a ribbon
• Insert a degree symbol using a keyboard shortcut

## Insert a degree symbol using a ribbon

• Place the cursor where you want to insert the degree symbol.
• On the Insert tab, click Symbols > Symbol .
• Choose a font for the text from the Font drop-down menu .
• Browse the symbols and click the degree sign. Click the Insert button .

## Insert a degree symbol using a keyboard shortcut

1. Place the cursor where you want to insert the degree symbol.
2. Press Alt + 0176.Note:  This method requires a 10-key numeric keypad.

## Syntax

The arguments to the RADIANS function are described below.

• Angle     Required. The angle in degrees to convert.

## Example

Copy the sample data from the following table and paste it into cell A1 of a new Excel worksheet. To display the results of formulas, select them and press F2, and then press Enter. Change the width of the columns as needed to see all the data.

Gennady grivin : Character code 00BA

The user has been deleted : there is also an insert – symbols and search there =))))

User deleted : Open Microsoft Excel, then select the “Insert” box, then select “Symbol” and there will be a “Degree” icon.

Baissa :

Vo-land-666 vo-land-666 : percent sign. for example 40%

## Excel functions for converting from RADIANS to DEGREES

The RADIANS function (in English RADIANS) is one of the mathematical and trigonometric functions that is often used for engineering calculations. This function in Excel easily converts degrees to radians – the angle corresponding to the arc, and the length of this arc is equal to its radius.

## How does the index function work in Excel?

EXAMPLE 1. For engineering calculations related to motion in a circle, it is often necessary to calculate angular velocities and convert degrees to radians and radians to degrees. Excel provides special functions for this. To simplify mathematical calculations, it may be necessary to express in one and second quantities.

We need to find how much will be in 180 ° Radians. Press the fx button near the formula bar to call the “Insert function” function selection window (SHIFT + F3) and enter the “RADIANS” function in the search window. We select the highlighted desired function, as shown in the figure below.

• A window appears in which you need to enter the arguments of the function. Enter the value 180, since we need to find how many radians will be in 180 degrees. Click OK.

180 degrees would be 3.1415 radians.

• Find the radians for an angle of 90 °. Let’s open the function window and enter the function that needs to be calculated. Find it in the function wizard window and select argument 90.

OK. 90 degrees would be 1.5707 radians.

In the following examples, we’ll show you how to convert these angle units in both directions.

## How to convert Radians to degrees using Excel

EXAMPLE 2. Sometimes it is necessary to convert the unit of measurement of angles rad into the value gradus °. The DEGREES function is provided for this. It allows you to convert values ​​expressed in radians to degrees in decimal.

• We need to find how much 4.1 radians will be in degrees. Press the fx button to open the function selection window and enter the corresponding function name in the search window.
• A window appears in which you need to enter the function arguments. We enter the value 4.1, since we need to find how much gradus ° will be in 4.1 rad. Click OK.

For an initial value of 4.1, we get exactly 235 degrees.

Thus, the conversion from radians to degrees in Excel is performed.

## How many radians are in several degrees?

EXAMPLE 3. Sometimes you need to determine how many radians are in several degrees at once and then enter the argument each time for a very long time. In this case, you can use a slightly different way of converting values ​​for measuring angles.

It is required to find how much 45, 67, 23, 12, 57 degrees will be in Radians. Press the fx (SHIFT + F3) button to call the function selection window and in the search window enter the necessary function as shown in the figure below. We point to the highlighted function.

• Select the range of degrees (A3 to A7) and click on the OK button.
• We stretch the line down so that we can find out how many radians are in all given degrees without calling the function several times.

For 45 degrees it is 0.7853, for 67 degrees it’s 1.1693, for 23 degrees it’s 0.4014, for 12 degrees it’s 0.2094, for 57 degrees it’s 0.9948 in radians.